Industrial Facility Occupancies

AIR provides the following codes for industrial facility occupancies:

Occupancy Code





Unknown Industrial Facility


A composite of all other industrial facility occupancies. You should select this code if you have no specific information about the industrial facility risk.


Heavy Fabrication and Assembly - General


Includes manufacturing and processing of automobiles, fabricated metals, machinery/equipment for industry, transportation equipment, pulp/paper and allied products, textile products, lumber and wood products, and stone/glass/clay/ceramics products.


Automotive Manufacturing


Large facilities that assemble automobiles. These facilities produce anywhere from 20,000 to over 1 million cars per year. In the United States most of the facilities are found in the mid-west with the exception of the Tesla factory in California. Japan, Korea, China, Germany and Mexico are also home to many of these large facilities.


Fabricated Metal Products


Fabricated metal products are assembled in large open floor warehouses where workers cut, bend, and weld steel to construct large structures (such as trusses and frames) that will be taken to a construction site.


Industrial and Commercial Machinery and Equipment


These facilities are large, generally constructed warehouses for the manufacturing of machines, tools, and factory equipment for consumers and the heavy industry. They are one to four stories tall and have large open floor plans, where a range of components can be set up to manufacture a given product.


Transportation Equipment Assembly


These facilities are usually large, generally constructed warehouses for the building and assembly of large transportation devices. They are one to four stories tall and have large open floor plans, where the extremely large products can be fully assembled.


Pulp/Paper and Allied Products Manufacturing


These facilities chemically or mechanically separate cellulose fibers from wood, recycled paper, and fiber crops, to form pulp/paper/wood chips. They cover a relatively large area, and their raw material and finished product storage account for a portion of this. Raw materials are generally stored outside, as are some of the intermediate materials such as wood chips. The facilities first produce pulp and wood chips from logs. The pulp can either be turned into a finished product at the same location, or commonly it is dried and sent to other facilities that produce paper and other similar products. The wood chips follow the same chain of events but are only used to produce fiber board. These facilities seem to resemble a mix between an oil refinery, lumber mill and cement mill.

There are a variety of facilities in this category that may look and function differently. For example, a pulp facility may look and function completely differently than a facility that makes large rolls of paper.


Textile Mill Products


Textile mills are facilities where natural or synthetic fibers are transformed into sheets of material that can later be manufactured into usable items. These facilities are generally constructed warehouses, with a large open floor plan. No additional structural design requirements are required for the building. They are usually just one story tall and are not required to be purpose-built facilities.


Lumber and Wood Products (Except Furniture)


These facilities have a footprint that is a mixture of indoor and outdoor space. Many of these facilities have been in operation for more than a hundred years and have not undergone considerable changes during this time. They are durable, time-tested facilities. A modern facility would differ by operating on a larger scale with more automated equipment. These facilities take logs and process them into lumber that a consumer would buy at the local lumber yard. They are usually located near some source of major transportation such a as a railroad or oceans and rivers where large amounts and raw material and finished products can be transported easily.


Stone/Clay/Glass/Ceramics Products


These facilities can be seen in a range of different forms. Glass manufacturing facilities are frequently long buildings with a furnace at one end and finished product storage at the other, with a single production machine connecting the two ends. Ceramic products such as tiles are slightly different, containing more machinery such as conveyor systems, kilns and finishing/ glazing machines. The facilities are usually purpose-built. In all these facilities there are areas for raw material and finished product storage. These products are made from the melting and forming of one or several raw earth materials. Much of the finishing of these products is done in large warehouses where long sheets and/or slabs can be formed as a single unit before being cut. For ceramic and glass products large furnaces are needed.


Light Fabrication and Assembly - General


Light industry is usually less capital-intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries). Light industries require a comparatively small amount of raw materials, area and power. The goods are easy to transport, and the volume of production is high.


Furniture and Fixtures


Facilities that manufacture furniture and fixtures are usually warehouses that have a relatively large open footprint. Employees and robots work together to assemble products. These facilities store raw materials and finished products on site and have extensive loading and unloading platforms.


Apparel and Finished Products from Fabrics


These facilities are large open floor plan warehouses. Many employees work at individual stations sewing, pressing, and assembling products. These are generally constructed warehouses that can be purpose-built or repurposed. Sheets of fabric that are manufactured in textile plants are transformed into consumer goods within these facilities.


Print/Publishing and Allied Industries


These facilities print, publish, and ship consumer products. They are usually large warehouses with office space as well as industrial manufacturing space. Usually dealing with paper, these facilities include magazines, newspapers, books, and poster manufacturers.


Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastics Products


These generally constructed facilities have large open floor plans where the plastic forming/ molding machines can be arranged into many rows for optimal production. The facilities manufacture rubber and plastic consumer products from plastic and rubber raw material.


Leather and Leather Products


These generally constructed warehouses house all the raw materials, finished products, and leather making equipment. This class includes facilities that process animal skins (hides) into leather material for leather products. This process is known as tanning and these facilities are known as tanneries.


Electronic and Other Electrical Equipment (Except Computer Equipment)


These generally constructed facilities may have some type of clean room/climate control systems for specific parts of the manufacture of certain products. They are generally, but not necessarily, purpose-built facilities. These are establishments engaged in manufacturing machinery, apparatuses, and supplies for the generation, storage, transmission, transformation, and use of electrical energy. Included are the manufacture of electricity distribution equipment, electrical industrial apparatuses, household appliances, electrical lighting and wiring equipment, radio and television receiving equipment, communications equipment, electronic components and accessories, and other electrical equipment and supplies.


Measuring, Analyzing, and Controlling Instruments


These facilities share many similar characteristics with the 420 class of industrial facilities, with the exception that they generally feature more precise equipment and more quality and climate control. That is not to say that the facilities in the 420 class lack quality control. These are establishments engaged in the manufacture of delicate instruments (including professional and scientific) and their associated sensors and accessories for measuring, testing, analyzing, and controlling. These products may include surveying and drafting instruments, hydrological, hydrographic, meteorological, and geophysical equipment, search, detection, navigation, and guidance systems and equipment.


Photographic, Medical, and Optical Goods


These facilities share similar characteristics with the buildings in classes 420 and 421. These three categories (420, 421, and 422) are extremely similar and are often grouped into one category (e.g. OSHA Manufacturing groupings). These establishments are engaged in the manufacture of instruments (including professional and scientific) including optical instruments and lenses, surgical, medical, and dental instruments, equipment, and supplies, ophthalmic goods, photographic equipment and supplies.


Watches and Clocks


These facilities are similar to the Electronic and Other Electrical Equipment facility, in terms of typical facility components and raw materials, with the exception of high end watch makers that produce watches on a small scale. This group includes establishments engaged in manufacturing watches and clocks.


Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries


This major group includes establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing products not classified in any other Light Fabrication And Assembly (General) manufacturing major group.


Tire Manufacturers


These facilities manufacture tires from rubber and various other materials. These are large facilities that are usually purpose-built. They include many different areas for different sections of the production of tires (e.g. section where raw materials are turned into a rubber compound, and different sections for each part of the product as it moves towards its finished state). They house robust machinery.


Food and Drug Processing - General


Facilities within this category are generally constructed buildings that are usually purpose-built. There are many different kinds of facilities within this category, including those involved in the manufacture of Food and Kindred Products, Drugs, Tobacco Products, Wine and Alcohol.


Food and Kindred Products


These are generally constructed buildings that are usually purpose-built. There are many different kinds of food and kindred product facilities, owing to the wide variety of types of finished products they produce. Most facilities that produce food products require a large fridge or freezer (or both) for raw material or finished product storage (or both). Some of these facilities produce a wider variety of products, thus having different sections of the factory for different products or procedures. For example, in a particular food product facility there could be an oven or cooking section followed by a flash freezing or canning section. These facilities range in size from small family run facilities to facilities run by large wholesale companies that produce goods on the scale of a large manufacturing facility. This major group includes establishments manufacturing or processing foods and beverages for human consumption, and certain related products, such as manufactured ice, chewing gum, vegetable and animal fats and oils, and prepared feeds for animals and fowls. Products described as dietetic are classified in the same manner as non-dietetic products (e.g., candy, canned fruits, cookies). Chemical sweeteners are classified in another major group.


Tobacco Products


These facilities that produce tobacco products are around the same size as the average food and drug processing facilities. They are fairly simple facilities that have become more and more automated over time. These facilities process tobacco leaves into a number of finished products, package and ship them.


Pharmaceutical Plants


These facilities are most similar to high technology facilities due to their high degree of climate and quality control. They operate on a small scale with hazardous and high-value chemicals. They are purpose-built facilities that are retrofitted with sophisticated equipment. Pharmaceutical manufacturing encompasses the end process drug formulations have to undergo before being sold to consumers. Pharmaceutical manufacturing includes processes such as production of drugs as tablets, liquids, gels, packaging, labeling, processing, etc.


Biological Products (Except Diagnostic) Medicinals/Botanicals/Biomedical


Biological products, or biologics, are medical products. Many biologics are made from a variety of natural sources (human, animal or microorganism).




Wineries are facilities where grapes are grown, harvested, processed, fermented, aged, and then bottled and shipped. On a large scale, wineries share many characteristics with a food and kindred product facility that is focused on making drinks or other processed products that require mixing in large vats. Wineries are simple facilities that are primarily made up of tanks, either for mixing and mashing or for storage and aging of the finished products. On a slightly smaller scale, wineries still operate mostly the same way as they have for hundreds of years, and storage is done in large wooden casks, as apposed to metal tanks.


Chemical Processing - General


Establishments involved in the manufacture of basic chemicals including acids, alkalis, salts, and organic chemicals and of chemical products that are to be used in further manufacturing including synthetic fibers, plastic materials, dry colors, and pigments. Includes the manufacture of finished products used for ultimate consumption including drugs, cosmetics, and soaps, as well as products used as supplies in other industries including paints, fertilizers, and explosives.


Chlorine Plants


Chlorine (Cl) is produced via the electrolysis process, which takes place in an electrolytic cell. There are three main types of electrolysis cells: Mercury, Membrane, and Diaphragm cells. During the electrolysis process, electric current is passed through a brine (usually salt water), and several gasses and liquids are produced.


Vinyl Plants


The facilities make or processes Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) resin, commonly referred to as- “vinyl.” Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is made by processing and combiniing ethylene and chlorine. VCM is the main raw material for PVC polymerization. VCM, which is gaseous under normal conditions, is stored under pressure in order to keep it in a liquid state.


Light Hydrocarbon or Aromatics Plants


Light hydrocarbons and aromatics are part of the petrochemical industry. Petrochemical feedstock (naphtha) is a product of oil refineries. Naphtha goes through a plant where cracking units convert it to propylene and ethylene as well as other light hydrocarbons and aromatics. This same process can be done with natural gas.


Plastics Plants


These plants use process many different chemicals to produce plastic polymers that will later be used as a raw material to produce plastic products in other facilities. Naphtha goes through a plant where cracking units convert it to propylene and ethylene as well as to other light hydrocarbons. Polymerization then creates polymer (plastic) pellets or powder. This same process can be done with natural gas.


Chlorhydrin Plants


Chlorohydrin process is used to manufacture several  chemicals; these plants are commonly referred to as Propylene Oxide plants.


Fertilizer Plants


Fertilizer can be based on many different chemicals. As a result there can be multiple types of fertilizer plants, and  each of these can produce multiple downstream fertilizer products. For example, ammonia is the building block in the production of  all nitrogen-based fertilizers. A facility that produces ammonia often produces other downstream fertilizer products, such as urea, ammonium nitrate and/or nitrogen solutions. Ammonia is produced by combining nitrogen(g) and hydrogen(g). For commercial production hydrogen is produced from hydrocarbons (natural gas, petroleum…) via steam re-forming. Ammonia is a main component in many other chemical processes and products. Ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and urea plants are often located adjacent to ammonia plants. Ammonia is combined with carbon dioxide to create a solid that is the most popular solid nitrogenous fertilizer. Urea is a relatively non-toxic, and non-flammable solid that can be stored as prills or granules in bags and shipped easily.


Cement Plants/Cement Mills


Cement plants crush raw materials into fine powder. This powder (clinker) is then heated in a rotary kiln at 1400 C to1500 C. These raw materials are usually taken from a quarry. From there minerals are added to the clinker and it is ground into a finer powder at a cement mill. 


Other Chemical and Allied Products


Other plants that may not fall under previous categories, such as: fine chemical facilities, R&D facilities, facilities that manufacture paints, varnishes, synthetic gasses and materials, and other resins, polymers, and chemicals.


Metal and Minerals Processing - General


Includes the smelting and refining of metals, the manufacture of castings, other basic metal products, nails, spikes, insulated wire, and cable, the production of coke, the fabrication of metal products including metal cans, tin ware, hand tools, cutlery, and general hardware, and metal forging.


Primary Metal Industry


The primary metal manufacturing sub sector is part of the manufacturing sector. Industries in the primary metal manufacturing sub sector smelt and/or refine ferrous and nonferrous metals from ore, pig or scrap, using electrometallurgical and other process metallurgical techniques.


Steel Mills


These facilities manufacture steel, an alloy of iron and carbon. The mill takes mined coal and iron ore and combines them chemically to fabricate molded and rolled or cast products.




These facilities take a raw mined material (ore) and process it to produce pure metal of all types. The metal extraction process from an ore (usually mixed with purifying and/or heat generating substances such as limestone and coke) is similar for all types of metal. The ore is heated at high temperature in an enclosed furnace. After a reducing reaction, lighter ore-components (impurities called slag or tailing) rise to the top and float on the molten metal. Smelting is opposite of roasting which involves an oxidizing reaction.


High Technology - General


Includes occupancies involved in the manufacture of machinery and supplies for the generation, storage, transmission, transformation, and utilization of electrical energy including electricity distribution equipment, industrial apparatus, household appliances, electrical lighting, and wiring equipment. Includes manufacturing instruments for measuring, testing, analyzing, and controlling, optical instruments and lenses, surveying and drafting instruments, hydrological, meteorological, navigational, surgical, medical, ophthalmic, and photographic equipment, semi-conductor, computer/electronic devices, and allied products.


Semi-conductor and Related Devices


Parts of the microelectronics industry, semiconductor factories build integrated circuits. These facilities are generally very expensive due to the extremely high manufacturing specifications. They are purpose-built, not repurposed facilities. 


Electronic Computer Devices


An electronic equipment plant, mounts, connects, assembles, and secures parts and components of electronic equipment to bring together the pieces of equipment we use every day.


Computer Storage Devices


Similar to semiconductor facilities, these facilities are highly concerned with climate and quality control. They are purpose-built facilities that you can expect to be highly engineered in most cases. Companies in this industry manufacture devices that allow the storage and retrieval of data from computers.


Electron Tubes




Printed Circuit Boards


These facilities manufacture printed circuit boards: a board is a self-containing module of interconnected electronic components used in almost ever electronic device. These facilities are similar to the 420-422 facilities; however, only printed circuit boards are further used in production of the product from the 420-422 groups as well as the 457 group.


General Building/Construction Contractors


Includes general contractors and builders of residential, farm, industrial, commercial, and other buildings, as well as general contractors involved in heavy construction including highways, streets, bridges, tunnels, etc. Also included are special trade contractors including painting, electrical work, carpentry work, plumbing, heating, roofing, etc.


Heavy Constructions


These facilities are involved in the process of building, renovating or replacing structures or infrastructures using a wide range of materials. This process is done on site and often involves earth moving as well as utilities moving or expansion. The work is usually a collaboration across several workers specializing in various fields. Projects range from small houses to mega projects that take years and often change surrounding areas.


Special Trade Contractors


Special trade contractors may work on subcontract from the general contractor, performing certain tasks or they may work directly for the owner. For the most part, special trade contractors perform their work at the site of construction. They might have shops where they perform work incidental to the job site.


Mining - General


Mining involves the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposits that form the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.


Mining Operations


Mining involves the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposits that form the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.


Metal Mining


Metal mining facilities extract metals from the ground. A metal ore is usually mined to be later processed and refined into metal. However, in some cases, large enough pure metal particles can be extracted straight from the ground and don’t need to be processed such as in smaller gold mining operations. 


Coal Mining


These facilities extract coal from the ground through underground mines or surface mines (large open cut , strip mines). A coal mine and its structures are referred to as a colliery. 


Mining/Quarrying - Non-Metallic Mineral (Except Fuels)


These facilities extract valuable minerals from the ground. The extraction methods can be broken down into above ground or below. In each of these categories there are several methods. These facilities also include the separation of minerals from waste material.


Oil Refinery Systems - General


An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. Includes establishments involved in petroleum refining, in the manufacture of paving and roofing materials, of compounding and lubricating oils and greases. Also includes the transportation of petroleum and other commodities, other than natural gas, through pipelines.


Hydro-Electric Power Systems - General


These facilities are engaged in the generation, transmission, and/or distribution of electric energy for sale. The class includes electric power generation, transmission, dams, or distribution. The facilities produce electricity by letting water behind a dam to pass through turbines that spin generators. The height of the water built up behind the dam determines the amount of power the plant can produce.


Thermo-Electric Power Systems - General


These facilities convert heat to electric power. Fossil fuels, nuclear, and solar heat energy are all used to heat water, converting it to steam which drives a turbine creating electric power. Fossil fuels globally dominate these plants.


Electric Substations


These facilities are part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform electricity voltages from high to low or vice-versa depending on the requirements. They form the middle man between the power generating source and the consumer (of electricity). Substations do not require on site personnel.

Substations generally contain one or more transformers and have switching, protection, and control equipment. Circuit breakers are used to interrupt any short-circuits or overload currents that may occur on the network. Substations here do not have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearby. A typical substation will contain line termination structures, high-voltage switch gear, power transformers, switch gear, surge protection, controls, grounding (earthing) system, lightning arrester, and metering. Other devices such as power factor correction capacitors and voltage regulators may also be located at a substation.


Potable Water Systems - General


These facilities treat incoming water sources that may or may not be safe to produce safe drinking water that is supplied to towns and cities. These facilities are primarily engaged in distributing water for sale for domestic, commercial, and industrial use.


Waste Water Treatment Systems - General


Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater (water that is no longer needed or suitable for its most recent use) into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cycle with minimal environmental issues or reused. Most facilities that conduct this process are government regulated and treat human waste and drainage, However, this also includes the “wastewater treatment plants/systems” located on site at large industrial facilities such as refineries.

These facilities are primarily engaged in the collection and disposal of wastes conducted through a sewer system, including such treatment processes as may be provided and establishments primarily engaged in the collection and disposal of refuse by processing or destruction or in the operation of incinerators, waste treatment plants, landfills, or other sites for disposal of such materials.


Gas Processing Systems - General


A natural gas processing plant is a facility designed to “clean” raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as 'pipeline quality' dry natural gas. A gas processing plant is also used to recover natural gas liquids (condensate, natural gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas) and occasionally other substances such as sulfur.

These facilities are engaged in the transmission and distribution and/or storage of natural gas for sale.


Communication Systems - General




Agriculture Systems - General




Bus Systems - General




International Ports




Domestic Ports




Airport Systems - General




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Touchstone 4.0 Updated June 13, 2018